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At partition the population of whole of India was 40 crore. Out of that Pakistan both east and west were 12 crore. When East Pakistan separated its population was 7 crore and west Pakistan was 5 crore.
So how did we end up multiplying 4 times to over 20 crore people?
The answer is modern medicine and better food. People used to die of disease particularly infections. Since the advent of antibiotics it is unusual to die of chest infection while previously most people died of infections caused by a multitude of bacteria some of them have now become extinct. There was no cure for tonsillitis, pneumonia, TB, anthrax, plague, cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, meningitis. Most families had one or two or three children die before the age of 5.
People were tough, strong and sturdy but very vulnerable to disease so they died young. Average age for a man in Europe was 45 and in India even less than that.
Modern medicine has not only found ways to keep us free of a multitude of fatal illnesses but also kept us alive for much longer. Average age in Europe now is for a man 85. In Pakistan it is not that high but there are so many of us and keep multiplying that it does not matter.
Women used to de during pregnancy and labor. Infant mortality was high.
There used to be famines regularly. The famous famine of Bengal is still fresh and some may remember it. Millions died in that because enough food couldn’t be provided to the people. Modern agricultural has made it possible to feed billions around the world whereas in some countries like India or in African continent population used to get decimated every few years due to famine, epidemics and wars.
There used to be wars around the world which took millions of lives regularly. There used to be epidemics of diseases like plague and cholera which decimated the populations within days.
Modern medicine has therefore made us live longer and longer. Modern agriculture and new growing methods, new ways to import food fast if the country needs it in a hurry, babies being kept alive and nurtured with good nourishment and nutritious high calorie food. No epidemics, no wars, nobody dying of infections, malnutrition, starvation. We are keeping everybody alive and healthy as long as possible.